Welcome to the winter edition of touchREVIEWS in Ophthalmology, which features relevant topics from across the specialty. This edition contains a wide range of articles evaluating current practice and research, as well as innovations that directly affect ophthalmologists.
The surgical correction of astigmatism is challenging. In an editorial, Alpins and Stamatelatos describe the vector planning approach, which has allowed the perfecting of laser treatment for regular and irregular astigmatism. Next, we have a series of review articles spanning the ophthalmology spectrum. First up, presbyopia is ubiquitous among those over the age of 40–45 years, and we now have a greater understanding of how it can functionally, psychologically and socially impair patients’ daily lives. Medical presbyopia management therapy options will continue to grow. McGee and Waring review the mechanism of action of pilocarpine hydrochloride, the evidence supporting its use, and its potential to provide a noninvasive, reversible, spectacles-free alternative for managing presbyopia.
Cataract surgery is the next topic to be covered. This is a commonly performed procedure, but many patients do not know what to expect. Brandon Baartman describes the available patient education tools, which should allow patients to make informed decisions about their care.
We then feature two separate reviews on corneal disorders. Neurotrophic keratitis is a rare condition characterized by a reduction or loss of corneal sensation and degenerative changes in the cornea. Duncan, Houser and Khandelwal review its pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Fortunately, medical and surgical neurotization option for neurotrophic keratitis is ever more possible. Our second review on corneal disorders – by Tian, Peralta and Houser – looks at the current advances in diagnosis and treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis, which remains one of the most difficult infectious diseases to manage.
Moving on to glaucoma, trabeculectomy and drainage device implantations are the mainstay of glaucoma surgery. Panarelli and Do discuss the key aspects of postoperative bleb management to optimize outcomes. Following this, Sruthi Arepalli reviews the available biosimilars for neovascular macular degeneration, macular oedema with retinal vein occlusion and myopic choroidal neovascularization.
Next up, on the topic of ocular immunology and inflammation, is a review on the topic of giant cell arteritis (CGA), which is associated with ocular symptoms and may cause blindness. Zhao et al. do an incredible job discussing the enduring role of corticosteroids in the management of GCA and consider alternative approaches.
Our final two reviews focus on retina. Firstly, Wu, Chong and Singh describe the clinical development of faricimab, which targets both vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and angiopoietin-Tie-2, and appears to be a promising addition to the treatment armamentarium. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections have transformed the management of retinal vascular diseases but have limitations. The recent expiration of the ranibizumab patent has allowed the emergence of biosimilars in the treatment of retinal vascular diseases. In our final review article of this edition, Sharma et al. consider the financial implications of biosimilars, in terms of their potential to save spending for national healthcare systems.
Our final article, an original research piece, focuses on glaucoma; Kizor-Akaraiwe et al. present a research study investigating the awareness and uptake of surgery as a treatment option in glaucoma patients taking medical treatment.
We wish to thank our contributors and reviewers for providing us with insightful and informative articles. We are so grateful to our editorial board for their continued involvement and advice. Thanks also go to all organizations and media partners for their on-going support. We hope that you will find this edition an enjoyable and informative read. Happy holidays, and we look forward to bringing you an incredible 2023.
Elizabeth Yeu, MD
Dr Yeu earned her medical degree through the combined undergraduate/medical school programme at the University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA. She completed her ophthalmology residency at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, where she served as Chief Resident (2006–2007). Dr Yeu continued to complete a fellowship in cornea, anterior segment and refractive surgery at the Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA (2007–2008), where she served as an assistant professor. Dr Yeu joined Virginia Eye Consultants in 2013 and is an assistant professor at the Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA. She is the Medical Director of CVP Mid-Atlantic Surgery Center, and also sits on the Board of Directors for the Virginia Eye Foundation. Dr Yeu is an examiner for the American Board of Ophthalmology, President-elect of the Executive Board of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS), the Chair of the Cataract Section of Ophthalmic News & Education (ONE) Network for the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) and the Chair of the AAO Annual Meeting Refractive Surgery sub-committee. Dr Yeu has authored numerous articles and is a frequent lecturer in the areas of refractive cataract surgery, anterior segment reconstruction, ocular surface disease management and surgical management of astigmatism.