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Sex, Gender and Hormones in Dry Eye Disease

Published Online: February 3rd 2020 European Ophthalmic Review, 2019;13(2):63–4
Authors: Piera Versura,
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Abstract
Article
Article Information
Abstract:
Overview

Many ophthalmologists see more women with dry eye disease (DED) than men. This can partly be explained by the fact that more women than men seek professional help for medical conditions, and that DED is more prevalent in elderly people, of whom a higher percentage are female, since women live longer than men. However, it is increasingly recognised that there are other reasons for the higher incidence of DED in women. Understanding sex differences in DED is essential for successful disease evaluation and management.In an expert interview, Dr Piera Versura discusses the evidence for the role of sex hormones in the aetiology of DED, and how this evidence may be used to inform future treatment strategies.

Keywords

Dry eye deisease, hormones, sex, gender

Article:
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Review Process

This is a short expert interview and has therefore not undergone the journal’s usual peer review process.

Authorship

All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship of this manuscript, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given final approval to the version to be published.

Support

No funding was received in the publication of this article.

Received

27 November 2019

References

1. Donaldson KE. Is dry eye different for women and men? 2018. Available at: www.ophthalmologytimes.com/article/dry-eye-different-women-and-men (accessed 11 November 2019). 2. Stapleton F, Alves M, Bunya VY, et al.TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report. Ocul Surf. 2017;15:334–65. 3. Craig JP, Nichols KK, Akpek EK, et al. TTFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report. Ocul Surf. 2017;15:276–83. 4. Dana R, Bradley JL, Guerin A, et al. Estimated prevalence and incidence of dry eye disease based on coding analysis of a large, all-age United States health care system. Am J Ophthalmol. 2019;202:47–54. 5. Sullivan DA, Rocha EM, Aragona P, et al. TFOS DEWS II Sex, Gender, and Hormones Report. Ocul Surf. 2017;15:284–333. 6. Alkozi HA, Franco R, Pintor JJ. Epigenetics in the eye: an overview of the most relevant ocular diseases. Front Genet. 2017;8:144. 7. Feng Y, Feng G, Peng S, et al. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on dry eye syndrome evaluated with Schirmer test and break-up time. J Ophthalmol. 2015;2015:420302.

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