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Treatment of Post-operative Endophthalmitis

European Ophthalmic Review, 2012;6(5):261-268 DOI: http://doi.org/10.17925/EOR.2012.06.05.261

Abstract

The rates of post-operative endophthalmitis have been low for many years, but recent reports suggest that this type of ocular infection may be on the rise. Fluctuations in the number of cases appear to correlate with the type of intraocular surgery performed. Post-operative

Abstract

The rates of post-operative endophthalmitis have been low for many years, but recent reports suggest that this type of ocular infection may be on the rise. Fluctuations in the number of cases appear to correlate with the type of intraocular surgery performed. Post-operative
endophthalmitis has been reported as a consequence of nearly every type of ocular surgery, but is most common following cataract surgery. Numerous reports have demonstrated that Gram-positive bacteria cause the vast majority of post-operative endophthalmitis cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates are the most common. Most intraocular infections resulting from infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci can be treated with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents, resulting in restoration of partial or complete vision. However, the more virulent the bacterial strain, the more devastating the visual outcome. Intraocular infections with Staphyloccus aureus, enterococci, Bacillusor Gram-negative strains are often intractable, and blindness or loss of the eye itself is not uncommon. The therapeutic success of treating post-operative endophthalmitis depends largely on accurate and prompt diagnosis. Antibiotic therapy can be topical, sub-conjunctival, systemic or intravitreal. Vitrectomy must be reserved for patients who present with initial visual acuity of light perception. Only in these cases has vitrectomy been shown to be more advantageous with respect to the intravitreal antibiotic injection.

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