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Sex, Gender and Hormones in Dry Eye Disease

European Ophthalmic Review, 2019;13(2):63–4 DOI:


Many ophthalmologists see more women with dry eye disease (DED) than men. This can partly be explained by the fact that more women than men seek professional help for medical conditions, and that DED is more prevalent in elderly people, of whom a higher percentage are female, since women live longer than men. However, it is increasingly recognised that there are other reasons for the higher incidence of DED in women. Understanding sex differences in DED is essential for successful disease evaluation and management.In an expert interview, Dr Piera Versura discusses the evidence for the role of sex hormones in the aetiology of DED, and how this evidence may be used to inform future treatment strategies.


Dry eye deisease, hormones, sex, gender

Review Process

This is a short expert interview and has therefore not undergone the journal’s usual peer review process.


All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship of this manuscript, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given final approval to the version to be published.


November 27, 2019

Published Online

January 29, 2020


No funding was received in the publication of this article.

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