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Original Research Ocular Trauma Epidemiology and Implications of Ocular Trauma Admitted to a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India Kirti Singh, Ankush Mutreja, Mainak Bhattacharyya, and Sonal Dangda Guru Nanak Eye Centre, Delhi, India P urpose: To study the aetiology, epidemiological profile of patients presenting with ocular trauma and compare visual outcomes of early versus late presentatiod. Design: Prospective observational study performed over fifteen month interval. Methods: Patients' epidemiological characteristics were evaluated along with cause of trauma, place of injury, time lag post injury, and postoperative management. Injuries were classified by Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT). Final visual and anatomical outcome after providing tailored surgical management was evaluated. All patients had a minimum follow up of 6 months. Statistical Analysis: All the data collected was analysed using SPSS version 17.0 software. Results: One hundred and three cases of incident ocular injury were included in the study. Open globe: closed globe injuries were 78:22% respectively with intraocular foreign body present in 9% of cases. Actively working adults younger than 25 years of age were the commonest age group affected (64%). The commonest place of injury was at home (32%) followed by workplace environment (29%). Good outcome (vision of > 6/60 Snellen) could be achieved in 50% cases, of which 53% had purely anterior segment injury and 20% concomitant retinal injury. Good outcome had a direct correlation with early presentation in 57% and poor outcome with late presentation seen in 64% cases. Conclusion: Serious ocular trauma frequently occurs at home with the younger population maximum at risk. Good visual acuity is associated with early intervention and purely anterior segment injuries. Keywords Epidemiology, ocular trauma, injury, intraocular foreign body, visual outcome Disclosure: Kirti Singh, Ankush Mutreja, Mainak Bhattacharyya, and Sonal Dangda have no conflicts of interest to declare. No funding was received in the publication of this article. Compliance with Ethics: All procedures were followed in accordance with the responsible committee on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 and subsequent revisions. Authorship: All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship of this manuscript, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given final approval to the version to be published. Open Access: This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, adaptation, and reproduction provided the original author(s) and source are given appropriate credit. Received: October 26, 2017 Accepted: February 6, 2017 Citation: US Ophthalmic Review, 2017;10(1):64–8 Corresponding Author: Mainak Bhattacharyya, Guru Nanak Eye Centre, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Marg, Delhi -110002, India. E: Ocular trauma is an important worldwide cause of preventable morbidity and accounts for half a million cases of monocular blindness worldwide. 1–5 Paucity of epidemiological data regarding ocular trauma in the developing world is a major factor in implementing effective health policy measures. The only national estimate regarding the Indian subcontinent is from a survey conducted from 1971–1974, where ocular trauma accounted for 1.2% of national blindness. 6 An ideal data collection system for ocular injury should incorporate population-based comparisons using a known denominator; demographic data, details of injury, visual acuity (VA) at presentation and final outcome after appropriate management. 7 Factors that have been found to correlate significantly with visual outcome post ocular trauma include age, 8 type or mechanism of injury, 2,9–13 initial VA, 2,11–13 presence of relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD), 8,11–14 extent of wound and size of open globe injury, 2,11–13 location of open globe wound, 2,10–13 lens damage, 2,11–13 hyphema, 11,13,15 vitreous hemorrhage, 2,11,13,15–16 retinal detachment, 17 and presence and type of intraocular foreign body (IOFB). 18 This study was conducted keeping these parameters in mind and assessing the requisite denominators. Materials and methods This study was a prospective observational study of all patients admitted to a tertiary hospital with ocular trauma between December 2012 and March 2014. Inclusion/exclusion criteria Since this was an epidemiological study, all patients irrespective of their age, mode of injury, time since injury, presenting VA, reporting to the emergency services of the hospital were included in the study after the requisite consent to be a part of the study and willingness for follow up. Data collected were demographic profile, type and mode of injury, first aid received, complete ophthalmic evaluation including appropriate investigations (X-ray Orbit, Ultrasonography, computed tomography [CT] scan wherever applicable). All patients were graded from A–E based on presenting VA as per Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT). 19 The zone of injury was graded from II–III 64 TOUCH ME D ICA L ME D IA